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Analysis of laser processing technology in the automotive industry
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Analysis of laser processing technology in the automotive industry

Analysis of laser processing technology in the automotive industry

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(Summary description)The use of laser through the interaction with the material, according to certain requirements for processing or molding, collectively known as light manufacturing. In the past 20 years, light manufacturing technology has penetrated into high-tech fields and industries, and began to replace or transform some of the traditional processing industry. In the automobile industry in developed countries, there are 50% -70% of the parts are completed using laser processing. Light manufacturing technology in the automobile industry to improve the research and development and manufacturing level, is playing an increasingly important role.

Analysis of laser processing technology in the automotive industry

(Summary description)The use of laser through the interaction with the material, according to certain requirements for processing or molding, collectively known as light manufacturing. In the past 20 years, light manufacturing technology has penetrated into high-tech fields and industries, and began to replace or transform some of the traditional processing industry. In the automobile industry in developed countries, there are 50% -70% of the parts are completed using laser processing. Light manufacturing technology in the automobile industry to improve the research and development and manufacturing level, is playing an increasingly important role.

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Analysis of the automotive industry in the laser use of laser and material through the interaction, according to certain requirements for processing or molding, collectively known as light manufacturing. In the past 20 years, light manufacturing technology has penetrated to the high-tech fields and industries, and began to replace or transform some of the traditional processing industry. In the automobile industry in developed countries, there are 50% -70% of the parts are completed using laser processing. Light manufacturing technology in the automobile industry to improve the research and development and manufacturing level, is playing an increasingly important role.

First, the characteristics of light manufacturing technology

        The current light manufacturing technology used in the light source is mainly laser, laser beam has a high energy density, high single palladium, high directional characteristics, so that the light manufacturing technology has many traditional manufacturing technology is not as good as the advantages. The technology used in the tool is a "laser cutter", processing without tool wear; in the process of processing without the impact of cutting force on the workpiece, so the workpiece without cold deformation; due to the processing of high energy injection rate, the thermal impact on the workpiece is very small, so the thermal deformation of the workpiece is very small, can be close to or achieve "cold "processing state, to achieve high-precision manufacturing that conventional technology can not perform; laser has good spatial control (beam direction change, rotation, scanning, etc.) and time control (on, off, pulse interval), especially suitable for automated processing, high productivity in large-scale manufacturing; laser processing objects of the material, shape, size and processing environment of freedom are Very large; low noise, does not produce harmful rays and residues, the production process of environmental pollution is small; can save molds, shorten the product development cycle, reduce development costs; less material waste, low manufacturing costs in large-scale production.

Second, the automotive industry in the category of light manufacturing technology

        Light manufacturing technology in the automotive industry can be divided into light "cold" processing, light "hot" processing, light rapid prototyping 3 categories.

1. Light "cold" processing technology

        With conventional cold processing technology corresponding to light manufacturing technology are laser cutting, laser punching, laser marking and laser cutting.

        Laser cutting speed, smooth and flat kerf, good parallelism of the cutting edge, no procurement of follow-up processing; narrow slit; kerf without mechanical stress, no shear burr; high precision, good repeatability, no damage to the workpiece surface.

        Laser punching speed, high efficiency, suitable for a large number of high-density group hole processing; laser punching can be obtained a large depth ratio, can be processed in hard, brittle, soft and other types of materials, and even in difficult to work on the inclined surface of the material processing of small holes; laser punching process clean, non-polluting.

        Laser marking is non-contact marking, fast, the mark is not easy to wear, laser marking machine is easy to combine with the assembly line.

        Laser cutting processing is similar to machining in the milling a process method, it is the use of focused laser beam on the material layer by layer for cutting.

2. Light "hot" processing technology

        Corresponding to the conventional thermal processing technology of light manufacturing technology are laser welding, laser surface intensification, laser deposition and alloying.

        Laser welding is the process of using a high-intensity laser beam to be welded metal locally heated to above the melting temperature and fused into a welded joint. Can be welded high melting point metals, non-metals, composite materials and other special materials, but also to achieve the welding of dissimilar materials and special structures; weld with "self-purification" role, high quality weld; can be precise welding, generally do not need to fill metal; through the light guide system so that the laser beam and multiple devices to form a flexible processing system, welding High degree of automation and high productivity; in high-energy beam welding, the most important feature of laser welding is that it does not require a vacuum chamber and does not produce x-rays.

        Laser surface hardening is divided into two types: laser phase hardening and laser condensation hardening. Laser phase change hardening, also known as laser quenching, it is a high-energy laser beam to quickly scan the workpiece, so that the irradiated metal or alloy surface temperature at a very high rate of increase in the phase on the point above, the laser beam away from the irradiated area, due to heat conduction, the cold matrix in the cold state to make it rapidly cooled and self-cooling quenching, to get a smaller hardening layer of tissue, the hardness is generally higher than the conventional quenching hardness; laser melting hardening The process is similar to the aforementioned process, except that the laser causes the material surface to be heated to a higher temperature, resulting in the formation of a finely-organized flame condensation hardening layer on the surface of the part.

        Laser deposition is the use of high-energy laser beam irradiation of the deposited material, so that it and the substrate surface thin layer with rapid melt condensation, the formation of a metallurgical combination with the substrate with completely different composition and properties of the alloy cladding.

3. Light rapid prototyping technology

        Light rapid prototyping technology is the principle of computer control, according to the parts of the cad and other design models and data, with a laser beam will shape the material layer by layer curing, from the point, the line structure of the parts of the surface (layer), from the surface of the precise accumulation of three-dimensional physical model or parts of the process. The use of light rapid prototyping technology, can significantly shorten the product development cycle, greatly reducing development costs, to quickly produce products to adapt to market changes, to maintain and strengthen the competitiveness of products in the market. At the same time, the use of light rapid prototyping technology is also an effective way to achieve parallel engineering and agile manufacturing technology.

        Into the new century, the automotive industry is entering the lean production stage according to user requirements for flexible processing, the automotive industry has a flexible modular production methods, the modern automotive industry is also in the direction of the development of high technology, automotive technology is experiencing by the traditional machinery manufacturing technology to advanced manufacturing technology changes. Light manufacturing technology for automotive development and production of manufacturing injected vitality. It can be expected that this century, light manufacturing technology in the automotive industry will develop rapidly, will become an important processing method of the automotive industry. Processing technology

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